• ADVANCED GREEK (elective, 3 credits)
This course features study and translation of more difficult passages from Patristic literature, giving students the opportunity to hone the skills acquired in the New Testament Greek courses.
• APOLOGETICS (3 credits)
In this course, students will learn the way to best defend the Faith through an introduction to Orthodox apologetics. The Faithful of our Church are beset by ever-changing attacks on the Orthodox Faith. Indeed, the very notion of truth itself is under attack. Given these manifold attacks on the Faith, varied as they are, students will be introduced to a conceptual approach to Orthodox apologetic theology. In this course, therefore, we will cover an Orthodox understanding of knowledge and both natural and spiritual proofs for the existence of God, the soul, and free will. The course will include a basic introduction to logic and metaphysics based upon selections of the philosophical chapters of Saint John of Damascus.
• CHURCH HISTORY I (3 credits)
The history of the Church from the Apostolic Age to the Great Schism, including the Christianization of the Roman Empire, the Œcumenical Synods, and the estrangement between East and West that led to the Great Schism. Special attention is given to the deviation of Roman Catholic theology from the spirit of the early Church and its ethos.
• CHURCH HISTORY II (3 credits)
An overview of Church history from the events surrounding the Great Schism to the twentieth century. Particular focus is placed on the continued deviation of Roman Catholicism from the Patristic mindset of the Orthodox Church, the Council of Ferrara-Florence, the interaction of Orthodoxy with Western movements such as the Reformation, the effects of Enlightenment philosophy on the Orthodox East, and the disastrous influence of Communism on the life of the Church in Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Balkans.
• DOGMATIC THEOLOGY I (3 credits)
An introduction to the doctrines of the Orthodox Church: Revelation, Scripture and Tradition; the Essence and Energies of God; the Holy Trinity; the Creation; the Angelic world; Divine Providence; the Fall of man; the origins of evil; the human condition; and the Incarnate Œconomy of Christ.
• DOGMATIC THEOLOGY II (3 credits)
A continuation of the previous course, focusing on Christology, Soteriology, the Mysteries of the Church, iconography, and eschatology.
• ECCLESIOLOGY AND ECUMENISM (3 credits)
A more detailed study of the ecclesiology of the Orthodox Church, with an analysis of Patristic ecclesiology, followed by an examination of the history and ideology of the ecumenical movement and its negative and divisive impact on the Orthodox Church in recent times.
• LITURGIOLOGY (3 credits)
An overview of the origins of Christian worship and the historical development of the Divine Liturgy and other services of the Orthodox Church in the light of contemporary scholarship and classic liturgical commentaries.
• NEW TESTAMENT I (3 credits)
An introduction to the study of the New Testament, concentrating on the Synoptic Gospels, with the aim of coming to a better understanding of the Gospels with the help of Patristic commentaries. Some attention will also be given to the lives of the Evangelists who wrote the Synoptic Gospels and the historical context in which they were written. Emphasis will be placed on the application of Christ’s teachings in the life of every Orthodox Christian.
• NEW TESTAMENT II (3 credits)
A general survey of the Epistles of Saints Paul, James, Peter, John, and Jude, aimed at coming to a better understanding of these Epistles with the help of Patristic commentaries. Some attention will also be given to the lives of these Apostles, the historical context in which their Epistles were written, and the application of their teachings in the life of every Orthodox Christian.
• NEW TESTAMENT III (3 credits)
An in-depth exegetical study of Saint John’s Gospel, with intensive study of the interpretations of this Gospel by Saint John Chrysostomos and Saint Cyril of Alexandria, supplemented by the commentaries of Saint Theophylact of Ohrid and Archbishop Averkiy of Syracuse, as well as exploration of themes and teachings particular to this Gospel and how they are foundational to and intertwined with the theology and Patristic traditions of the Church. Emphasis will be placed on how the teachings contained in the Gospel relate to and inform correct Orthodox thought and behavior.
• NEW TESTAMENT GREEK I (3 credits)
An introduction to New Testament Greek, its alphabet, grammar, syntax, and vocabulary, with simpler readings from the Gospels and Epistles, supplemented with hymns from the Octoechos and the Menaion.
• NEW TESTAMENT GREEK II (3 credits)
A continuation of the previous course in New Testament Greek, with further readings from the Gospels and Epistles, supplemented with simpler passages from Patristic writings.
• OLD TESTAMENT I (3 credits)
An introduction to the study of the Old Testament and the early history of Israel, covering the Pentateuch and the historical books. Special attention will be accorded to Genesis, Exodus, the four books of Kingdoms, and I Esdras and II Esdras. The course will also examine the differences between the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text, the importance and centrality of the Septuagint in the Orthodox Church, and the issue of Biblical canon. Finally, the course will initiate students into the basic principles of Patristic exegesis as the major figures and events will be examined in view of their typological significance.
• OLD TESTAMENT II (3 credits)
An introduction to the study of the Prophets and the Prophetic Writings in the Old Testament. Special attention will be accorded to the pre-Exilic and Exilic Prophetic figures and statements, as well as to Prophetic works that do not fall specifically under the category of Prophets, such as the Book of Job and the Psalms. The course will also examine any differences in the Prophetic canon that may be found between the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text. Finally, the course will initiate students into the basic principles of Patristic exegesis as the Prophets and their statements will be examined in view of their Christ-centered typological significance. As such, points of divergence between the early Rabbinic and Christians traditions in their respective interpretations will be assessed and discussed, with special attention given to the historical, cultural, and social conditions that prevailed during the Post-Second Temple and Early Church period.
• OLD TESTAMENT III (3 credits)
An in-depth study on the Book of Daniel as found in the Septuagint. This course will focus on the Patristic interpretations given to the various components of the book by the Church Fathers. The course will concentrate on the commentaries by Saint Hippolytus of Rome and Saint Theodoret of Cyrus. Special attention will be given to the relation of the Apocalyptic segments of the book to (a) other books of the Old Testament, (b) the New Testament, and (c) other Apocalyptic works, such as the Shepherd of Hermas and the Revelation of Saint John. The course will also examine the differences between the versions of Daniel as found in the Septuagint and the Masoretic Text, and furthermore investigate the reason for the discrepancies in light of the historical and religious-social conditions during the Apostolic era and in the years following the destruction of the Second Temple. Finally, the course will initiate students into the more advanced principles of Patristic exegesis as the major figures and events will be examined in view of their typological significance.
• PATRISTICS I (3 credits)
The first part of this course is a survey of the teachings of the ante-Nicene Fathers and writers and select readings from their works: the Apostolic Fathers, the Apologists, Saint Irenæus of Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen.
• PATRISTICS II (3 credits)
A continuation of Patristics I, with particular emphasis on the writings and teachings of Saint Athanasios the Great, two of the Cappadocian Fathers (Saint Basil the Great and Saint Gregory of Nyssa), and Saint John Chrysostomos, with select but detailed readings from their works.
• PATRISTICS III (3 credits)
A continuation of Patristics II, with particular emphasis on the writings and teachings of Saint Hilary of Poitiers, Saint Gregory the Theologian, and Saint Cyril of Alexandria, with select but detailed readings from their works.
• PATRISTICS IV (3 credits)
A continuation of Patristics III, with a detailed study of the teachings and writings of later Byzantine Fathers: Saint Maximus the Confessor, Saint Symeon the New Theologian, and Saint Gregory Palamas.
• BIOETHICS (2 credits)
This course explores some of the more difficult contemporary ethical challenges encountered in the field of healthcare by surveying emerging technologies and current practices.
• CHURCH ARCHITECTURE (elective, 3 credits)
An introduction to the theoretical and practical aspects of Orthodox Church architecture, the exterior design of Orthodox Churches, and their interior design and furnishing.
• CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS (3 credits)
This is a survey course in the history, culture, and art of Classical civilizations from the early archaic period to the late antique period. In this course, students are introduced to literary sources and archeological findings as well as philosophies, mythologies, and political theories of the classical world. This course functions as a requisite foundation for future classes in areas of history, art history, and philosophy.
• COMPARATIVE THEOLOGY AND RELIGION (3 credits)
A survey of non-Orthodox denominations, focusing on their historical origins and doctrinal teachings: Non-Chalcedonian Christianity, Roman Catholicism, and the principal movements in Protestantism, followed by an introduction to the major non-Christian religions: Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism.
• ENGLISH LITERATURE (3 credits)
This course is designed to complement and supplement the courses in Logic, and Rhetoric and Composition. As such, it focuses on selections from the five main genres of English literature (poetry, fiction, nonfiction, drama, and prose) chosen especially for the development of oratorical and rhetorical skills. The class is writing-intensive.
• EUROPEAN HISTORY (3 credits)
A survey of medieval and modern history, with emphasis on pivotal events and significant intellectual and social movements in the Byzantine East, in the Medieval West, and in Eastern Europe following the Fall of Constantinople. Attention is given to the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Age of Discovery, the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Russian Revolution, and the rise of totalitarian regimes in the twentieth century.
• FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT (1 credit)
An overview of double-entry bookkeeping, financial reports, budgeting, and investment.
• HISTORY OF ART (3 credits)
This course introduces students to the concepts and the history of Christian art and architecture. Its aim is to provide students with in-depth knowledge of Christian visual culture through key methodological approaches and analytical tools specific to art-historical inquiry.
• HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY I (3 credits)
An introduction to ancient Greek philosophy through a close reading of selected works by the Presocratics, Plato, and Aristotle.
• HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY II (3 credits)
An introduction to later Greek, Patristic, and medieval philosophy through a close reading of selected works by Plotinus, Saint Gregory the Theologian, Saint Augustine of Hippo, Saint Dionysios the Areopagite, Saint Maximus the Confessor, Saint John of Damascus, Thomas Aquinas, Saint Gregory Palamas, and others, with an emphasis on the divergent ways ancient Greek philosophy was used for Christian purposes by the Eastern Church Fathers and the Western Scholastics.
• INTRODUCTION TO CHURCH SLAVONIC (elective, 1 credit)
A basic introduction to Church Slavonic, its alphabet and numerical system, grammar, syntax, and vocabulary, with practice in reading selected passages from Scripture, the Divine Liturgy, and hymnography.
• LATIN I (elective, 3 credits)
An introduction to classical Latin grammar, syntax, and vocabulary, with simplified readings from Classical authors.
• LATIN II (elective, 3 credits)
A continuation of Latin I, with particular emphasis on ecclesiastical Latin, supplemented with readings from Scripture, early Latin hymnography and hagiography, and simpler Latin Patristic texts.
• LOGIC (3 credits)
Logic is the science of right thinking. In this class, we will learn how to make arguments, identify logical fallacies, and the consistent use of terms. Throughout our lives, we are often riddled with confusion, especially in this information age where a plethora of ideas are buzzing in and out of our minds every second. Given this situation, our mind is like a cluttered desk, with papers, books, staplers, and pens all strewn about. Logic is the filing cabinet, the bookshelf, and the pen cup. In other words, logic is the organizer. Hence, this course will enable us to organize our minds.
• MODERN GREEK I (elective, 3 credits)
An introduction to the basics of Modern Greek grammar, as well as speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension, with emphasis on conversation.
• MODERN GREEK II (elective, 3 credits)
A continuation of Modern Greek I.
• ORTHODOX HISTORY AND CULTURE (elective, 3 credits)
A survey of the histories and spiritual cultures of the traditionally Orthodox countries of Greece, Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Georgia, and of countries or regions with significant Orthodox populations, such as Albania, Alaska, and the Levant.
• PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION (elective, 3 credits)
An introduction to the classic problems in the philosophy of religion, with an emphasis on the contribution that Orthodoxy can make to addressing issues that generally reflect the biases of heterodox Christianity.
• RELIGION IN SOCIETY (elective, 3 credits)
Religious and secular views of the relationship of the Church to society, with an examination of ethical, political, and social issues.
• RHETORIC AND COMPOSITION (3 credits)
Aristotle rightly defines rhetoric as the ability to find the available means of persuasion in a set of circumstances. We employ rhetoric in our everyday lives, even as children, when we try to convince our parents to let us see friends or when we seek a refund for a returned item at the grocery store. Persuasion is dominant in human communication. Therefore, this course aims to teach the classical form of rhetoric that was utilized by esteemed orators and thinkers such as Aristotle and Cicero. By imparting the principles of proper argumentation, arraignment, and style, students will be equipped to apply rhetoric effectively in any situation they encounter.
• RUSSIAN I (elective, 3 credits)
An introduction to the basics of Russian grammar, as well as speaking, reading, writing, and comprehension, with emphasis on conversation.
• RUSSIAN II (elective, 3 credits)
A continuation of Russian I.
• SCIENCE AND RELIGION (1 credits)
This course investigates the relationship between Orthodox Christianity and scientific inquiry, with particular reference to the central issues of contemporary cosmology and the “new physics.” Students consider how scientific inquiry and teaching affect theological understanding and how Christian faith guides the application of science and technology.
• WESTERN LITERATURE (3 credits)
This course surveys literature from Europe and the Americas, focusing upon various religious, sociological, psychological, philosophical, and aesthetic issues, with reading assignments from selected authors who have contributed significantly to the development of Western civilization.
Independent reading under the supervision of a faculty member, culminating either in an oral examination or a substantial paper.
• BYZANTINE CHANT I (2 credits)
An introduction to Byzantine chant, with a strong emphasis on learning Byzantine musical notation and its different scales.
• BYZANTINE CHANT II (2 credits)
A continuation of Byzantine Chant I.
• CAREER PREPAREDNESS I (1 credit)
The purpose of this course is to equip students with the following practical skills, among others: time management; writing a resume and a cover letter; compiling portfolios; creating personal websites; conducting job searches; networking; preparing for interviews; and searching for graduate programs or professional training.
• CAREER PREPAREDNESS II (1 credit)
A continuation of Career Preparedness I.
• CATECHETICS (3 credits)
A practical theological approach to catechesis, with a focus on the theological foundations of Christian education. Students are instructed in the spiritual formation of children and adults and in various methods of catechesis.
• COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (2 credits)
This course provides training in computer literacy, security, and networking. It also focuses on basic visual design, software, and techniques for setting up websites and using computer networks for communication such as video calling and email. Owing to the ever-changing nature of technology, this course may vary from what is presented in the syllabus.
• DIVINE SERVICES (2 credits)
An introduction to the Divine Services of the Orthodox Church and to the cycles of the Church year, including the Lenten and Paschal seasons.
• HOMILETICS (2 credits)
The historical development of Christian preaching, with attention to classical rhetoric and Christian hermeneutics. Students learn to prepare and deliver topical, focused, and well-organized homilies based on Holy Scripture and the Holy Fathers.
• ICONOGRAPHY (elective, 3 credits)
This course provides students with a basic theoretical understanding of icons and a practical experience of icon painting. Color theory is also addressed.
• PARISH AND MISSION WORK (3 credits)
A workshop in dealing with the different kinds of issues and problems (including legal ones) that arise in establishing a new Orthodox mission, along with discussions of the day-to-day functioning of a parish or mission community.
• PASTORAL PSYCHOLOGY (3 credits)
A presentation of the anthropology, cosmology, and soteriology of the Orthodox Church, with a focus on sin, the passions, the nature of evil, the therapeutic treatment of spiritual illness, and the restoration of men and women to spiritual health.
• PASTORAL THEOLOGY (3 credits)
Preparation of students for practical pastoral service in a parish: hearing confessions, counseling parishioners coping with marital, emotional, interpersonal, or other kinds of problems, and facing the destructive assault on Biblical and traditional family, community, and social values by modern secularism.
• PRACTICAL LITURGICS AND SYMBOLISM (3 credits)
An introduction to liturgical life and the practice of the Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece, with an examination of Orthodox ecclesiastical piety, serving and reading in Church, and the meaning of the actions of clergy and servers at different liturgical services.
• VESTMENT-MAKING (elective, 3 credits)
Lessons in sewing vestments and other forms of clerical attire.
• ADVANCED BIBLICAL STUDIES (3 credits)
The purpose of this seminar is to examine in detail a number of books from the Second Temple Period (516
• ADVANCED BYZANTINE STUDIES (3 credits)
This seminar serves to introduce students to four different and crucial aspects of Byzantine thought and culture, the intellectual and cultural matrix within which the Orthodox Faith achieved its mature expression: literature and hagiography, hymnography, art and architecture, and political theology in the form of Church–state relations. Students will learn how to deal with key concepts and theoretical approaches in the fields of literary, historical, and visual studies.
• ADVANCED DOGMATIC THEOLOGY (3 credits)
The course will be divided in two parts. We will be studying two difficult and also controversial theological concepts, one coming from the Western theological tradition and the second from Eastern theology. In the first part, we will examine Saint Augustine of Hippo’s teaching about predestination, Divine Grace, and human will. We will adopt a diachronic approach and follow the gradual crystallization of this teaching that Saint Augustine regarded as the very heart of Christ’s Gospel. We will also study the reception of this teaching in the Western Church during the first millennium. In the second part, we will explore Saint Gregory of Nyssa’s teaching about Apokatastasis. First, we will analyze the main pillars on which Saint Gregory constructed his eschatological teaching, i.e., his protology, his teaching about the nature of evil, his understanding of human free will, and his Christology. Secondly, we will study selected passages in which Saint Gregory develops his concept of Apokatastasis. Thirdly, we will try to assess critically this teaching from the Orthodox point of view. In this way, we will be able to compare two great, influential, and very different eschatological visions of Christianity.
• ADVANCED PATRISTICS I (3 credits)
The primary focus of this seminar is the theology of Saint Maximus the Confessor. Because Saint Maximus’s thought cannot properly be understood without reference to his theological predecessors, primarily Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Evagrios, Saint Makarios the Great, Saint Gregory the Theologian, and Saint Dionysios the Areopagite, the first part of the seminar will involve an examination of those issues in their writings that bear upon the development of Saint Maximus’s thinking. The remainder of the seminar will be devoted to a close reading of selections from the Responses to Thalassios and the Ambigua, as well as other shorter works by Saint Maximus.
• ADVANCED PATRISTICS II (3 credits)
The primary focus of this seminar, which will build upon the authors studied in the preceding Patristics seminar, is the thought and writings of Saint Gregory Palamas, one of the pillars of later Byzantine theology. Particular attention will be devoted to the role of demonstration (apodeixis) in Saint Gregory’s correspondence with Barlaam of Calabria and, more generally, to demonstration as a basic principle of Orthodox theological methodology.
• ADVANCED PEDAGOGY (3 credits)
This course addresses key questions and issues related to methods and techniques of effective teaching. Special focus is given to the mental formation of young adults, philosophy and psychology of education, classroom environment, instructors’ responsibilities and limitations, and the practical application of pedagogical skills.
• CONTEMPORARY THOUGHT (3 credits)
The purpose of this seminar is to trace the development of modern thought from its genesis in late medieval nominalism all the way to existentialism and postmodernism and to articulate an Orthodox assessment of and response to the various schools of philosophical thought over the part four centuries, with a view to equipping students with the intellectual tools and resources for confronting the many challenges that face the Orthodox Church in the contemporary world.
• ELECTIVE (3 credits)
• PATRISTIC AND MODERN GREEK I (3 credits)
The purpose of this two-part seminar is to enable students to attain a reasonable degree of facility in reading, translating, and assessing Greek theological texts, both Patristic and contemporary. Beginning with the Apostolic Fathers, the course will proceed during the term to examine—chronologically and thematically—writings by a variety of Patristic authors from the pre-Nicene period through to the eighth century. Discussion of word-use, grammar, and syntax will afford students the opportunity to hone the skills acquired in earlier courses on New Testament Greek.
• PATRISTIC AND MODERN GREEK II (3 credits)
The purpose of this two-part seminar is to enable students to attain a reasonable degree of facility in reading, translating, and assessing Greek theological texts, both Patristic and contemporary. Beginning with Saint Gregory Palamas, the course will proceed during the term to examine—chronologically and thematically—writings by a variety of Patristic authors from post-Late Antiquity through to the early twentieth century. Discussion of word-use, grammar, and syntax will afford students the opportunity to hone the skills acquired in earlier courses on New Testament Greek.